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What is CNG? Where is CNG Used and What are its Advantages?

CNG Conversion, Energy Efficiency in Transportation and Emission Reduction

CNG; It is the compressed state of the natural gas called “Compressed Natural Gas”, that is, “Compressed Natural Gas”, with special compressors at high pressures at 200 / 250 bar.

Usage areas of “CNG” Natural Gas:

  1. CNG AUTOGAS is used in vehicles as a motor fuel,
  2. CNG ENERJİ is filled in special transport containers and transported to consumers who will use natural gas, and it is consumed by reducing the pressure.

CNG can be used as autogas and motor fuel, especially in the automotive industry. Used in all kinds of vehicles in the automotive industry, CNG can be used in all kinds of transportation vehicles such as Truck, Light Truck, Bus, Minibus, Car. The area where compressed natural gas is used the most in the world is the transportation area. High fuel prices, octane value of 120-125, ensuring clean and complete combustion, prolonging the life of the engine as a result of not mixing with oil, not causing an increase in fuel consumption over time, explosion hazard (5% -15% Air-Gas mixture ratio) compared to other fuels. The fact that it is relatively low has made CNG an incentivized fuel.

  • Studies and research on the use of natural gas in vehicles in many western countries continue at a rapid pace. 200 million of the 600 million cars and trucks in the world are in the USA. It is known that in the USA, where 50% of the air pollution arises from the exhausts of these vehicles, CNG vehicles are produced and some of the existing vehicles are converted to CNG. In our country; In Istanbul, Ankara, Adana, Sakarya, Bursa, Afyon, Bolu, Konya, Diyarbakir, Kocaeli, Gaziantep and Eskişehir, some projects are being developed to reduce the air pollution caused by the exhaust gases of the municipal buses, and the use of the buses whose conversion to natural gas has been completed has started. According to the 2017 data of NGV Global company in New Zealand; The number of vehicles working with natural gas in the world is around 20 million, the number of filling stations is around 20,000, the number of vehicles working with natural gas in Turkey is around 4000, and the number of filling stations is only around 16.
  • In the State of California, USA, student shuttle buses compulsorily use CNG. The use of CNG in canal boats has been completed in the Netherlands. In many countries, only vehicles using CNG can enter city centers. These examples highlight the safety and emission advantages of CNG.
  • In terms of engine maintenance, the period of periodic maintenance of the vehicle is extended, less vibration reduces wear, oil life is extended and performance is increased since CNG does not contain pollutants. When the monetary equivalent of these positive values ​​is added to the very important advantage in CNG price, the savings rate increases compared to other fuels.


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Advantages of CNG

It is more economical and cleaner than other fuels. Natural gas is the cleanest fuel compared to other fossil fuels, as it does not produce toxic and corrosive products that affect the environment. Since it enters the engine directly as gas, it burns easily even in cold weather. Ignition temperature of natural gas is 650 ºC; gasoline is 350 ºC. Since it does not contain additives as in gasoline, it leaves less waste material in the engine after combustion. Because of this feature, we can say that it extends the life of the engine. Due to the high octane number, the engine combustion efficiency is higher and in this respect, it is a useful fuel for the engine. Since natural gas is transported by pipelines, it does not cause danger, extra expense and pollution on highways compared to fuel oil and other fuel types transported by road. It is safer and the risk level is minimal compared to other fuels.


How much does “CNG” Auto Natural Gas SAVING?

A vehicle that consumes 7 liters of gasoline in an average of 100 km;

  • Approximately 6.5 m³ CNG
  • Or it consumes about 9 liters of LPG.
  • It is 50-60% more economical than gasoline and 30-35% more efficient than LPG.


How much does CNG save?

A vehicle that consumes 7 liters of gasoline in an average of 100 km;

  • Approximately 6.5 m³ CNG
  • Or it consumes about 9 liters of LPG.
  • On the basis of fuel consumption; It is 50-60% more economical than gasoline and 30-35% more efficient than LPG. On a price basis, the amount of savings can be calculated according to current prices.


Conversion of Natural Gas as a Single Fuel in Diesel Engines

In single fuel systems, the working principle of the engine is converted from diesel cycle to Otto cycle. When converting diesel engines to CNG, it is imperative to switch to the gasoline engine principle (Otto cycle) in order for the combustion to be regular and controlled. Thus, it is switched to a spark-ignition engine. For this, injectors are replaced with spark plugs, changes are made to the cylinder head of the engine. Despite the reduction in fuel consumption of engines converted to CNG, conversion costs are more economical than buying a new vehicle.
For the first time in Turkey, the conversion of 115 IKARUS and MAN Buses belonging to IETT from diesel to CNG with single fuel was successfully completed in 2010, and this project attracted attention all over Turkey.